Introduction and spread of tobacco in China

by:WOYU     2020-02-20
According to historical documents, tobacco was introduced to China from the end of the 16th century to the beginning of the 17th century. It was successively introduced into Fujian from the Philippines, Guangdong from Vietnam, and Liaodong from North Korea. Among them, Luzon Island in the Philippines passed to Fujian earlier and spread more widely. Tobacco in the Philippines was introduced by Spanish priests from Mexico during the Spanish rule and promoted cultivation in Luzon. 'Lu Shu' of the Ming Dynasty Yao Lu recorded: 'Lu Song came out of the grass and said that it was a stubble, a cricket, burned one end with fire, and one end toward the mouth. The smoke from the pipe into the throat can be intoxicating, and can Protect the spirits. 'Since Luzon Island in the Philippines is close to the southern coast of China, Fujian sailors brought tobacco from the Philippines to Zhangzhou and Quanzhou in Fujian in the Ming Wanli period (1573-1620) for planting. In view of the fact that Luzon in the Philippines and the coastal areas of Fujian have the same environment, valleys, tobacco farmers in Fujian have also adopted the cultivation techniques of the Philippines, using tobacco as a supplementary crop of rice, and planting them by transplanting and continuous cropping. Soon after the introduction of tobacco into China, there was a tobacco product of its own. Among them, Zhangquan had records of tobacco products: 'The light meat fruit made by Ma's name ... is a long pipe and the fire is spitting, and there are drunk servants. 'Tobacco has a strong commodity attribute and has been promoted very quickly. During Wanli years, the output of Fujian tobacco was not only higher than that of the Philippines, but also sold back to the Philippines as a commodity. Subsequently, tobacco spread from Fujian to Jiangnan, Southwest, Northwest, and North China. Among them, Shanxi Quwo people brought tobacco from Fujian to their hometown during Wanli years, and soon planted it in Quwo. Soon it became the main producing area of ??tobacco and shredded tobacco in North China. Since then, Shanxi merchants have sold tobacco leaves and shreds everywhere. There is a tobacco shop in Tianjin that has been in business for more than 300 years. It was founded by Lin Jin, a Shanxi native from Zhangfen in the 17th year of Chongzhen (1644). It was originally named Zhonghe Yanpu. It was renamed Wujiazi Laoyanpu when it opened for 300 years in 1944. . When tobacco was first introduced into China, people called it Tamba with foreign transliteration, and soon it was named with beautiful names: golden silk, acacia, octagon, etc., which were poetic. The Qing dynasty Wang Shihan also edited a tobacco monograph, the title of which was 'Gold Silk Record'. Although the title of tobacco began in the Ming Dynasty, the common use of this title was in the Qing Dynasty. The Qing dynasty Chen Ji compiled a 'Tobacco Spectrum', which brought together a hundred schools of thought, and its influence was no less than that of Lu Yu's Tea Classic. During the Republic of China, in order to distinguish tobacco from opium, people usually wrote cigarettes as 'smoke.' It is said that snus was introduced to China at the end of the Ming Dynasty. In the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty, the 'Tianbaohang' and 'Jihexing' of the thirteen rows of imported products in Guangzhou started to import snus from Europe and then sold it all over the country. Emperor Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong of Qing Dynasty all liked snuff very much. At that time, Zhixian County, Xiangshan County, Guangdong imported snuff from Macau for the emperor every year. Cigars were introduced to China in the early Qing Dynasty. In the sixteenth year of Qianlong (1751), Yin Guangren and Zhang Rulin co-edited the 'Macao Chronicle', which states: 'Tobacco can be rolled like a pen, fired, and smoked. 'The first smokers of cigars in China were mostly foreigners living in China, compradors and foreign students engaged in foreign affairs, etc., and then spread to political and business people. Since most of the cigars introduced into China were Filipino Manila cigars, they are commonly referred to as Luzon. Early Luzon cigarettes were imported. Later, some tobacco-producing areas in Guangdong and Sichuan began to imitate Luzon tobacco and rolled tobacco leaves into pen-shaped tubes, commonly known as 'leaf cigarettes.' The shisha originated in ancient Persia (present-day Iran) and the Arab region. In the late 16th century, it first spread to Eastern Europe, Russia, and then to China. It was popular during the Kangxi and Qianlong reigns of the Qing Dynasty. Lanzhou hookah was very popular in China at that time. Pipe tobacco originated in Europe and was introduced to China in the late Qing Dynasty. Due to its small market in China, only the “Mengzi Tobacco” in Yunnan is the representative of production in China. Momo originated from Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador in South America. It was introduced to China from Russia and Kazakhstan from the 18th century to the 19th century. Originally, Moto tobacco from Kanto and Ili Momo were the most famous. Later, the production and sales market was limited to Xinjiang. area.
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