????The tobacco in the pockets of sailors, slaves, and merchants was first brought to the world by European ships, and their labors led to the entire early modern maritime trade and overseas colonialism. In the vibrant port cities of the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the South China Sea, European seafarers impart tobacco knowledge from American Indians to their local counterparts, who in turn teach this new behavior to others. In many parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, coastal farmers have obtained seeds early and started producing tobacco for the local market, while other groups of cosmopolitan travelers are shipping this new commodity to the inland Settlements. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, enduring transoceanic and intercontinental exchanges became an ever-expanding feature of trade. In this age of increasingly frequent exchanges, tobacco was widely spread by people who were constantly migrating across many ethnic groups.
????Tobacco has flowed into China following the tide of global mobility, and this trend has also moved tobacco to other parts of Africa and Eurasia. There is no accurate record of when and how tobacco first entered China.
????However, as an active participant in the cross-regional trade network in early modern times, many Chinese have many opportunities to access this novel plant and its uses. The southern coast and the sea area near the Northeast Liaodong Peninsula are the two main channels for tobacco to enter the East Asian continent, as well as different intercultural interaction zones. In the 1660s, the Ming Dynasty lifted official bans on overseas trade. Before that, Chinese merchants in Fujian could only trade secretly with Japanese and Southeast Asian merchants.